Gadis Kontruksi Tukang Las Seksi (Welding)

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Automatic orbital welding Tunguston inert gas welding. This eliminates the possibility of manual errors in welding. It produces identical welds for hundred times hence accuracy in welding.

Orbital welding was first used in the 1960 `s when the aerospace industry recognized the need for a superior joining technique for aerospace hydraulic lines. Mechanisms developed in which the arc of the tungsten electrode rotated around welded joints tubes. Arc welding current is set up so that the control system automates the entire process. The result is more precision and reliable method than the manual welding method replaced.
Orbital welding became practical for many industries in the early 1980 `s when the supply / electric combination developed control system operated from 110 V AC and is physically small enough to be carried from place to place on a construction site in place for some welds. Modern day orbital welding systems offer computer control where welding parameters for a variety of applications can be stored in memory and called up when needed for specific applications. Certified welder skills thus built into the welding system, producing a large number of identical welds and leaving significantly less room for error or defect.

Orbital Welding Equipment

In the orbital welding process, tubes / pipes are clamped in place and orbital weld head rotates an electrode and electric arc around the weld to make the required weld. An orbital welding system consists of a power supply and an orbital weld head.

Power Supply: Supply / power supply control system and control of welding parameters according to the specific weld program created or recalled from memory. The power supply provides the control parameters, the arc welding current, the power to drive the motor in the weld head and switches the shield gas (es) on / off as needed.

Weld Head: Orbital weld heads are usually of the type covered and provide an inert atmosphere chamber that surrounds the weld joint. Standard enclosed orbital weld heads practical in welding tube sizes from 1/16 inch (1.6mm) to 6 inches (152mm) with wall thickness 'up to 0.154 inches (3.9mm) Larger diameters and wall thickness' can be accommodated with open style weld head.

Physics GTAW Process

Orbital welding process uses the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) as the source of the electric arc that melts the base material and forms the weld. In the GTAW process (also known as Tungsten Inert Gas process - TIG) an electric arc is formed between the tungsten electrode and the part to be welded. To start the arc, RF or high voltage signal (usually 3,5-7 KV) is used to break down (ionize) the insulating properties of gas and make it electrically conductive shield to pass a small amount of current. A capacitor dumps current into this electrical path, which reduces the arc voltage to a level where the power supply can then supply the current arc. The power supply responds to demand and supply welding current to keep the arc established. Metal to be welded is melted by the heat of the arc and fuses together.

Reasons for Using Orbital Welding Equipment

There are many reasons for using orbital welding equipment. The ability to make high quality, consistent weld repeated at maximum speed approaching the speed of welding offers many benefits to users:

o Productivity. An orbital welding system will drastically outperform manual welders, many times paying for the cost of the orbital equipment in a single job.

o Quality. Quality welds created by an orbital welding system with the correct weld program will be superior to manual welding. In applications such as semiconductor or pharmaceutical tube welding, orbital welding is the only way to reach the weld quality requirements.

o Consistency. Once the welding program has established an orbital welding system can repeatedly perform the same weld hundreds of times, eliminating the normal variability, inconsistencies, errors and manual welding defects.

o Orbital welding can be used in applications where a tube or pipe to be welded can not be rotated or where rotation part is not practical.

o Orbital welding can be used in applications where access space restrictions limit the physical size of the welding device. Weld heads may be used in rows of boiler tubing where it would be difficult for a manual welder to use a welding torch or view the weld joint.

o Many other reasons exist for the use of orbital equipment over manual welding. Examples are applications where inspection of the internal weld is not practical for each weld created. By making a sample weld coupon that passes certification, the logic states that if the sample weld is accepted, that successive welds created by an automatic machine with the same input parameters should also be sound.

Industries and Applications for Orbital Welding

Aerospace: As mentioned earlier, the aerospace industry is the first industry to recognize the need for orbital welding. High pressure system from the aircraft can have more than 1,500 welded joints, all automatically created with orbital equipment.

Boiler Tube: Boiler tube installation and repairs offer a perfect application for orbital welding. Compact orbital weld heads can be clamped in place between rows of heat exchanger tube welder where users will experience severe difficulty making welded over.

Food, Dairy and Beverage Industry: Manufacture of food, milk and drinks require consistent full penetration welds on all weld joints. Most of the tube / pipe system has a schedule for cleaning and sterilization in place. For maximum efficiency plumbing piping systems should be as smooth as possible. Every hole, gap, crack or incomplete weld joint can form a place for the fluid in the tube to be trapped and form a bacteria harbor.

Nuclear Piping: The nuclear industry with the harsh operating environment and associated specifications for high quality weld has long been an advocate of orbital welding.

Offshore applications: Sub-sea hydraulic lines use materials whose properties can be altered during normal thermal change the weld cycle. Hydraulic joints welded with orbital equipment offer superior corrosion resistance and mechanical properties.

Pharmaceutical Industry: Pharmaceutical process lines and piping systems provide high-quality water to their processes. This requires high quality welds to ensure water sources are not contaminated tubes by bacteria, rust or other contaminants. Orbital welding ensures full penetration welding without overheating occurring that could undermine the corrosion resistance of the weld end zone.

Semiconductor Industry: The semiconductor industry requires piping systems with extremely smooth internal surface finish to prevent the buildup of contaminants on the wall of the tube or welding joints. Once large enough, a build up of particulate, moisture or contaminant could release and ruin the batch process.

Tube / Pipe Fittings, Valves and Regulators: Hydraulic lines and liquid and gas delivery systems all require pipe with connector fittings. Orbital system provides the means to ensure high productivity and quality of welding. Sometimes pipes can be welded in place for the valve or regulator body. Here the orbital weld head provides the ability to produce high-quality welds in applications with restricted access to the weld joint.

A manual weld taken from plant operations.
This weld has defects that include lack-of-penetration, misalignment,
large gap, and discoloration due to poor ID purge. Welding will be deemed unacceptable by any standard.